Nati il 13 Aprile

Gary Kasparov
April 13, 1963
Baku, Azerbaijan, U.S.S.R.
Soviet chess master who became the world chess champion in 1985.

Euphrase Kezilahabi
April 13, 1944
Ukerewe, Tanganyika [now in Tanzania]
Tanzanian novelist, poet, and scholar writing in Swahili.

Michael S(tuart) Brown
April 13, 1941
New York, N.Y., U.S.
American molecular geneticist who, along with Joseph L. Goldstein, was awarded the 1985 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for their elucidation of a key link in the metabolism of cholesterol in the human body.

Seamus Justin Heaney
April 13, 1939
Castledawson, Londonderry, N.Ire.
Irish poet whose poems are rooted in rural life in Northern Ireland.

M(ichael) A(lexander) K(irkwood) Halliday
April 13, 1925
Leeds, Yorkshire, Eng.
British linguist, teacher, and proponent of neo-Firthian theory who viewed language basically as a social phenomenon.

Stanley Donen
April 13, 1924
Columbia, S.C., U.S.
American motion-picture director and choreographer whose inventive dance sequences infused musicals with a fresh vitality in the 1940s and '50s.

John Braine
April 13, 1922 -- October 28, 1987
Bradford, Yorkshire, Eng. -- London
British novelist, one of the so-called Angry Young Men, whose Room at the Top (1957; film 1958) typifies the concerns of a generation of post-World War II British writers.

Stanislaw M. Ulam
April 13, 1909 -- May 13, 1984
Lemberg, Pol., Austrian Empire [now Lviv, Ukraine] -- Santa Fe, N.M., U.S.
Mathematician who played a major role in the development of the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos.

Eudora Welty
April 13, 1909
Jackson, Miss., U.S.
American short-story writer and novelist whose work is mainly focused with great precision on the regional manners of people inhabiting a small Mississippi town that resembles her own birthplace and the Delta country.

Olin James Stephens, II
April 13, 1908
New York City
American naval architect who was designer, skipper, and navigator of the yacht Dorade, the winner of the 1931 Transatlantic and Fastnet races, and who was codesigner and relief helmsman of the J-class Ranger, the winner of the America's Cup in 1937.

Samuel (Barclay) Beckett
April 13, 1906 -- December 22, 1989
Foxrock, County Dublin, Ire. -- Paris, Fr.
Author, critic, and playwright, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (1969). He wrote in both French and English and is perhaps best known for his plays, especially En attendant Godot (1952; Waiting for Godot).

Rene Pleven
April 13, 1901 -- January 13, 1993
Rennes, France -- Paris
French politician, twice premier of the Fourth Republic (1950-51, 1951-52), who is best known for his sponsorship of the Pleven Plan for a unified European army. His efforts spurred the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Rene Pleven
April 13, 1901 -- January 13, 1993
Rennes, France -- Paris, France
Held a succession of Cabinet posts in post-World War II France, including two brief periods as prime minister (July 1950-February 1951, August 1951-January 1952); in 1950 he sponsored the unsuccessful Pleven Plan for a unified European army, which laid the . . .

Jacques (Marie Emile) Lacan
April 13, 1901 -- September 9, 1981
Paris, Fr. -- Paris
French psychoanalyst who gained an international reputation as an original interpreter of Sigmund Freud's work.

Rene Pleven
April 13, 1901 -- January 13, 1993
Rennes, France -- Paris
French politician, twice premier of the Fourth Republic (1950-51, 1951-52), who is best known for his sponsorship of the Pleven Plan for a unified European army. His efforts spurred the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

Sir Arthur William Fadden
April 13, 1895 -- April 21, 1973
Ingham, Queensland, Australia -- Brisbane
Accountant, politician, and for a short time prime minister of Australia (1941).

Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1ST BARONET
April 13, 1892 -- April 5, 1984
Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, Eng. -- Goring-on-Thames, Oxfordshire
British air officer who initiated and directed the "saturation bombing" that the Royal Air Force inflicted on Germany during World War II.

Sir Robert Alexander Watson-Watt
April 13, 1892 -- December 5, 1973
Brechin, Forfarshire [Angus], Scot. -- Inverness, Inverness-shire
Scottish physicist credited with the development of radar in England.

Frank Murphy
April 13, 1890 -- July 19, 1949
Harbor Beach, Mich., U.S. -- Detroit, Mich.
Associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1940 until his death, noted for his militant defense of individual liberties and civil rights and for his insistence on doing substantial justice irrespective . . .

Herbert Osborne Yardley
April 13, 1889 -- August 7, 1958
Worthington, Ind., U.S. -- Washington, D.C.
American cryptographer who organized and directed the U.S. government's first formal code-breaking efforts during and after World War I.

John Hays Hammond, Jr.
April 13, 1888 -- February 12, 1965
San Francisco -- New York City
U.S. inventor whose development of radio remote control served as the basis for modern missile guidance systems.

Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
April 13, 1885 -- September 7, 1961
Goengamieden, Neth. -- The Hague
Dutch statesman who as prime minister (1940-45) conducted The Netherlands' World War II government-in-exile and controlled its armed forces (1940-44).

Gyorgy Lukacs
April 13, 1885 -- June 4, 1971
Budapest -- Budapest
Hungarian Marxist philosopher, writer, and literary critic who influenced the mainstream of European Communist thought during the first half of the 20th century. His major contributions include the formulation of a Marxist system of aesthetics that opposed political control of . . .

Semyon Mikhaylovich Budenny
April 13, 1883 -- October 17, 1973
Kozyurin, near Rostov-na-Donu, Russia -- Moscow
Red Army officer who played a prominent role in the Russian Civil War (1918-20) and later became a marshal of the Soviet Union.

Demyan Bedny
April 13, 1883 -- May 25, 1945
Gubovka, Ukraine, Russian Empire -- Barvikha, near Moscow
Soviet poet known both for his verses glorifying the Revolution of 1917 and for his satirical fables.

Ludwig Binswanger
April 13, 1881 -- February 5, 1966
Kreuzlingen, Switz. -- Kreuzlingen
Swiss psychiatrist and writer who applied the principles of existential Phenomenology, especially as expressed by Martin Heidegger, to psychotherapy. Diagnosing certain psychic abnormalities (e.g., elation fixation, eccentricity, and mannerism) to be the effect of . . .

Pyotr Petrovich Lazarev
April 13, 1878 -- April 23, 1942
Moscow -- Alma-Ata, Kazakh S.S.R.
Soviet physicist and biophysicist known for his physicochemical theory of the movement of ions and the consequent theory of excitation in living matter, which attempts to explain sensation, muscular contraction, and the functions of the central . . .

Sidney Bradshaw Fay
April 13, 1876 -- August 29, 1967
Washington, D.C., U.S. -- Lexington, Mass.
U.S. historian known primarily for his classical reexamination of the causes of World War I.

John W. Davis
April 13, 1873 -- March 24, 1955
Clarksburg, W.Va., U.S. -- Charleston, S.C.
Conservative Democratic politician who was his party's unsuccessful candidate for the presidency of the United States in 1924.

Enrique Gonzalez Martinez
April 13, 1871 -- February 19, 1952
Guadalajara, Mex. -- Mexico City
Poet, physician, and diplomat, who was a major influence in 20th-century Mexican literature.

Butch Cassidy
April 13, 1866 -- 1909
Beaver, Utah, U.S. -- Concordia Tin Mines, near San Vicente, Bolivia?
American outlaw and foremost member of the Wild Bunch (q.v.), a collection of bank and train robbers who ranged through the western United States in the 1880s and '90s.

Antonio Sanchez de Bustamante y Sirven
April 13, 1865 -- August 24, 1951
Havana -- Havana
Lawyer, educator, Cuban politician, and international jurist who drew up the Bustamante Code dealing with international private law. Adopted by the sixth Pan-American Congress (Havana, 1928), which also elected him president, his code was ratified without reservations by six Latin . . .

James (Sydney) Ensor, BARON
April 13, 1860 -- November 19, 1949
Ostend, Belg. -- Ostend
Belgian painter and printmaker whose works are known for their bizarre fantasy and sardonic social commentary.

Richard Theodore Ely
April 13, 1854 -- October 4, 1943
Ripley, N.Y., U.S. -- Old Lyme, Conn.
American economist who was noted for his concern with social problems and the role of economists in solving them.

William Henry Drummond
April 13, 1854 -- April 6, 1907
Mohill, County Leitrim, Ire. -- Cobalt, Ont., Can.
Irish-born Canadian writer of humorous dialect poems conveying a sympathetic but sentimentalized picture of the habitants, or French-Canadian farmers.

HAKUSHAKU Goto Shojiro
April 13, 1838 -- August 4, 1897
Tosa Province, Japan -- Tokyo
One of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration, the 1868 overthrow of feudal authority in Japan, and a major proponent of restructuring the new government along Western parliamentary lines. He was the cofounder of the first political party in Japan.

Juan Montalvo
April 13, 1832 -- January 17, 1889
Ambato, Ecuador -- Paris, France
Ecuadorean essayist, often called one of the finest writers of Spanish-American prose of the 19th century.

Thomas D'Arcy McGee
April 13, 1825 -- April 7, 1868
Carlingford, County Louth, Ire. -- Ottawa, Ont., Can.
Irish-Canadian writer and chief political orator of the Canadian confederation movement.

Sir William Sterndale Bennett
April 13, 1816 -- February 1, 1875
Sheffield, Yorkshire, Eng. -- London
British pianist, conductor, and composer, a notable figure in the musical life of his time.

Felicien-Cesar David
April 13, 1810 -- August 29, 1876
Cadenet, Fr. -- Saint-Germain-en-Laye
Composer whose music opened the door for the Oriental exoticism that characterized much French Romantic music.

Eli Terry
April 13, 1772 -- February 26, 1852
East Windsor, Conn. -- Plymouth, Conn., U.S.
American clockmaker who was an innovator in mass production.

Richard Trevithick
April 13, 1771 -- April 22, 1833
Illogan, Cornwall, Eng. -- Dartford, Kent
English mechanical engineer and inventor who successfully harnessed high-pressure steam and constructed the world's first steam railway locomotive (1803). In 1805 he adapted his high-pressure engine to driving an iron-rolling mill and to propelling a barge with . . .

Sir Thomas Lawrence
April 13, 1769 -- January 7, 1830
Bristol, Gloucestershire, Eng. -- London
Painter and draftsman who was the most fashionable English portrait painter of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Laurent Gouvion-Saint-Cyr, marquis de
April 13, 1764 -- March 17, 1830
Toul, Fr. -- Hyères
French soldier and statesman who distinguished himself in the Napoleonic Wars (1800-15). As minister of war in 1817-19 he was responsible for reorganizing recruitment procedures in the French army.

Louis-Henri-Joseph Conde, 9{sup e} prince de (9th prince of), DUC (duke) DE BOURBON
April 13, 1756 -- August 27, 1830
Paris -- Saint-Leu, Fr.
Last of the princes of Condé, whose unfortunate son and sole heir, the Duc d'Enghien, was tried and shot for treason on Napoleon's orders in 1804, ending the princely line.

Joseph Bramah
April 13, 1748 -- December 9, 1814
Stainborough, Yorkshire, Eng. -- London
Engineer and inventor whose lock-manufacturing shop was the cradle of the British machine-tool industry.

Louis-Philippe-Joseph Orleans, duc d' (duke of)
April 13, 1747 -- November 6, 1793
Saint-Cloud, Fr. -- Paris
Bourbon prince who became a supporter of popular democracy during the Revolution of 1789.

Frederick North North (of Kirtling), Lord
April 13, 1732 -- August 5, 1792
London, Eng. -- London
Prime minister from 1770 to 1782, whose vacillating leadership contributed to the loss of Great Britain's American colonies in the American Revolution (1775-83).

Thomas Percy
April 13, 1729 -- September 30, 1811
Bridgnorth, Shropshire, Eng. -- Dromore, County Down, Ire.
English antiquarian and bishop whose collection of ballads, Reliques of Ancient English Poetry (1765), awakened widespread interest in English and Scottish traditional songs.

Paolo Frisi
April 13, 1728 -- November 22, 1784
Milan, Austrian Habsburg domain [Italy] -- Milan
Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist who is best known for his work in hydraulics. His most significant contributions to science, however, were in the compilation, interpretation, and dissemination of the work of other scientists.

John Hanson
April 13, 1721 -- November 22, 1783
Charles County, Md. -- Oxon Hill, Md., U.S.
American Revolutionary leader and president under the U.S. Articles of Confederation.

Jonathan Carver
April 13, 1710 -- January 31, 1780
Weymouth, Mass. [U.S.] -- London, Eng.
Early explorer of North America and author of one of the most widely read travel and adventure books in that period.

Jean-Pierre de Crousaz
April 13, 1663 -- February 22, 1750
Lausanne, Switz. -- Lausanne
Swiss theologian, philosopher, and controversialist whose greatest importance lies in his letters to a wide range of correspondents revealing the intellectual climate of his time.

Jeanne-Marie Bouvier de La Motte Guyon, MADAME DU CHESNOY
April 13, 1648 -- June 9, 1717
Montargis, Fr. -- Blois
French mystic and writer, a central figure in the theological debates of 17th-century France through her advocacy of quietism, an extreme passivity and indifference of the soul, even to eternal salvation, wherein she . . .

Roger de Bussy-Rabutin
April 13, 1618 -- April 9, 1693
Épiry, Fr. -- Autun
French libertine who amused the nobility of his time with scandalous tales told in a light classical prose style; he was the cousin and confidant of the celebrated letter writer the Marquise de Sévigné.

Thomas Wentworth Strafford, 1st earl of, BARON OF RABY
April 13, 1593 -- May 12, 1641
London -- London
Leading adviser of England's King Charles I. His attempt to consolidate the sovereign power of the king led to his impeachment and . . .

Catherine DE MEDICIS
April 13, 1519 -- January 5, 1589
Florence -- Blois, Fr.
Queen consort of Henry II of France (reigned 1547-59) and subsequently regent of France (1560-74), who was one of the most influential personalities of the Catholic-Huguenot wars. Three of her sons were kings of France: Francis II, Charles IX, and . . .

Peter Faber
April 13, 1506 -- August 1, 1546
Vilaret, Savoy -- Rome
French Jesuit theologian and a cofounder of the Society of Jesus, who was tutor and friend of Ignatius Loyola at Paris. He was appointed professor of theology at Rome by Pope Paul III (1537), founded Jesuit colleges at . . .